The same method as for Adobe Reader also works with Acrobat Professional, tested with version 11.
The installer directory of Acrobat has a setup.exe and an AcroPro.msi. Ignore the setup.exe, and replace the outdated MSP with the latest one. Extract the MSI to an AIP as described for Adobe reader, and then slipstream the latest MSP (or just run ApplyMSP2.bat there).
You can specify your license number in an MST file by using the Configuration Wizard from Adobe.
Version 10: If you want a language different than english, copy the mst file
with the correct language-id from the Transforms directory,
then (example for the german version) install from the AIP with the command
msiexec /i AcroPro.msi TRANSFORMS=1031.mst
or, if using GPO, specify the MST-file on the Modification-Tab.
The transform can only be applied while installing, not during creation of the AIP, and not during slipstreaming the MSP.
If you get error 1603 (eventlog calls it %%1603), don't believe that this always is a missing permission to the destination directory. Better check if you see such messages in the logfile:
[CheckVCx64Runtime] : Setup could not find Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 (x64) runtime CustomActionInfo: ERROR Encountered: [CHECKVCx64Runtime] : : VCRT Missing hence Force Quitting CustomAction CheckVCx64Runtime returned actual error code 1603 CheckVCx64Runtime. Return value 3.
Acrobat wants the Visual C++ 2013 runtime installed. However this is only need if
you have the 64bit version of Microsoft Office. If you have not, declare the properties
IGNOREVC10RT and IGNOREVCRT64, and set them to 1.