The same method as for Adobe Reader appears to also work with Acrobat Professional, tested with version 11.
However it does not run silent, because it needs your license number. There is certainly a way to somehow specify this, but I did not investigate, beause I did not need this so far.
If you want a language different than english, copy the mst file
with the correct language-id from the Transforms directory,
then (example for the german version) install from the AIP with the command
msiexec /i AcroPro.msi TRANSFORMS=1031.mst
or, if using GPO, specify the MST-file on the Modification-Tab.
The transform can only be applied while installing, not during creation of the AIP, and not during slipstreaming the MSP.
If you get error 1603 (eventlog calls it %%1603), don't believe that this always is a missing permission to the destination directory. Better check if you see such messages in the logfile:
[CheckVCx64Runtime] : Setup could not find Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 (x64) runtime CustomActionInfo: ERROR Encountered: [CHECKVCx64Runtime] : : VCRT Missing hence Force Quitting CustomAction CheckVCx64Runtime returned actual error code 1603 CheckVCx64Runtime. Return value 3.
Acrobat wants the Visual C++ 2013 runtime installed. However this is only need if
you have the 64bit version of Microsoft Office. If you have not, declare the properties
IGNOREVC10RT and IGNOREVCRT64, and set them to 1.